Legion Structure in Aquitania (Topic #7825)

Reluctant Heroes (#5845) > Adventures in the Western World (#19864) > South (#6121) > Aquitania (#6115) > History and People of Aquitania (#7805) > Legion Structure in Aquitania
Reluctant Heroes
Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

Reluctant Heroes Wiki!

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
OOC and NEWS 2 (LP)
News Scroll of the World (LP)

The Provinces
Central
West
East
North
South

Active Games
There are a total of 14 active game threads.

Central Province

Ludus Nocte (LP)

West Province

Sea Griffons IX: Nijmegin (LP)
Chalon (LP)
Illian - A Homecoming (LP)
Critias Rising (LP)
Gambit (LP)
O' Fortunata (LP)
Reavers (LP)
Requim (LP)

East Province

Eques de Mors (LP)

North Province

Vocare' de Iuris (LP)
Formenhith (LP)
TolloAnimus Arbor (LP)

South Province

Southern Hawks (LP)

Active Kingdom Links
Iberia (LP)
Trier (LP)

Character Building
-Improving Your Character- (LP)
---Character Construction---RH (LP)

Character Information Board

Character Sketches and Information (LP)
RH Active Characters (LP)
Interesting Character Concepts (LP)
-Reluctant Heroes-EXP & TU Awards (LP)
Character Logs (LP)


Photobucket

Rota Regenliefd

Rota Regenliefd the Valkyrie (LP)
Rota Regenliefd Exp (LP)

Alexandre Godart

Alexandre Godart (LP)
Alexandre Godart EXP (LP)

Jamie Bogget

Jamie Boggett (LP)
Jamie Bogget - Sorcerrer (LP)

Illian the Silent

Illian the Silent
Illian Exp (LP)

Jenai Bergen

CS: Jenai Bergen (LP)
EXP: Jenai Bergen

Critias

CS: Critias (LP)
EXP: Critias Ex-Templar Merc (LP)

Elberich Mahler

Elberich Mahler (LP)
Elberich Mahler Exp (LP)

Gavyn Merrick Rice

Gavyn Merrick Rice (LP)
Gavyn Merrick Rice Exp (LP)

Nulfi

CS: Nulfi (LP)
EXP: Nulfi Deepcarver (LP)

Taylon Maignart

Taylon Maignart (LP)
Taylon Maignart - Exp (LP)

Jonas Wechsler

Jonas Wechsler (LP)
Jonas EXP (LP)

Kahvi Moonshade

CS: Kahvi Moonshade (LP)
EXP: Kahvi Moonshade (LP)

Bardolf Lionsbane

Bardolf Lionsbane (LP)
Bardolf EXP (LP)

Ivyian Nightblade
Ivyian Nightblade (LP)

Leonor Carrillo

Leonor Carrillo (LP)

Brandon Ashwood
Brandon Ashwood (LP)



¨¨¨¨°º©©º°¨¨¨¨¨¨°º©©º°¨¨¨

Reluctant Heroes Sourcebooks

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

-INTRODUCTION TO THE WESTERN WORLD Sourcebooks (LP)
The Western World Sourcebook Mini-Module (LP)
The Western World Sourcebook Mini-Monster Manual (LP)
The Western World Sourcebook DM's Manual (LP)
Friends and Foes of the Western World (LP)
Pont du Falx (LP)

modified from original

Special Thanks is owed to the artists over at http://www.wc3sear.ch for their wonderful artwork with free icons.

Thanks to SkaldSyrcha for doing such a great job with everything ~Horseman & Rasgorn

Special Thanks to Tsuyoshikentsu for making our wiki what it is!


Middle Age Goodies
The Gryphon Works
http://www.griffin-works.com/index.php
Mayhem
http://www.mayhemltd.com/index.html

OOTS - Order of the Stick


Main Game Forum

Post Reply
Body
Mar 10, 2004 22:46 (PostID: 50791)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Organization of the Aquitanian Legion

A full strength legion was officially made up of 6,000 men, but typically all legions were organized at under strength and generally consisted of approximately 5,300 fighting men including officers. It is difficult to determine whether non-combatants like field surgeons and clerks were included in the 5,300 or helped bring the total number of men up to the official 6,000.

The basic structure of the army is as follows:

Contubernium: (tent group) consisted of 8 men.

Centuria: (century) was made up of 10 contubernium with a total of 80 men commanded by a centurion.

Cohorts: (cohort) included 6 centuriae or a total of 480 fighting men, not including officers. In addition the first cohort was double strength but with only 5 centuriae instead of the normal 6.

Legio: (Legion) consisted of 10 cohorts.
Additionally each Legion had a 120 man Alae (cavalry unit) called the Eques Legionis permanently attached to it possibly to be used as scouts and messengers.

Therefore the total fighting strength of a Legion:
The First Cohort totaling 800 men (5 double-strength centuries with 160 men each) 9 Cohors (with 6 centuries at 80 men each) for a total 4,320, and an additional 120 man cavalry for a grand total of 5,240 men not including all the officers.

The basic designation of the 10 cohors was the same throughout all the Legions. They were arranged in battle so that the strongest and weakest units would be mixed throughout the formation maximizing morale and effectiveness.

Cohort I: Was made up of the elite troops. Its direct commander was the Primus Pilus, the highest ranking and most respected of all the Centurions.

Cohort II: Consisted of some of the weaker or newest troops.

Cohort III: No special designation for this unit.

Cohort IV: Another of the four weak cohorts.

Cohort V: Again, no special designation.

Cohort VI: Made up of The Finest of the Young Men.

Cohort VII: One of the four weak cohorts and a likely place to find trainees and raw recruits.

Cohort VIII: Contained The Selected Troops.

Cohort IX: One of the four weak cohorts and a likely place to find trainees and raw recruits.

Cohort X: Made up of The Good Troops.

Aquitanian Legionary Ranks

The following list indicates ranks from highest command to lowest common soldier:

Senior Officers of the Aquitanian Legion

Legatus Legionis: The overall Legionary commander. This post was generally appointed by the emperor, was a former Tribune and held command for 3 or 4 years, although could serve for a much longer period. In a province with only one legion, the Legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion has a Legatus and the provincial governor has overall command of them all.

Tribunus Laticlavius: Named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank. This tribune was appointed by the Emperor or the Senate. Though generally quite young and less experienced than the Tribuni Angusticlavii, he served as second in command of the legion, behind the Legate.

Praefectus Castrorum: The camp Prefect. Generally he was a long serving veteran who had been promoted through the ranks of the centurions and was 3rd in overall command.

Tribuni Angusticlavii: Each legion had 5 military tribunes of equestrian (knight) class citizens. They were in many cases career officers and served many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function during engagements.

Primus Pilus: The First File was the commanding centurion of the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion. Service in this position also allowed entry into the equestrian social class upon retirement.

Mid-Level Officers in the Aquitanian Legion:

Centurions: Each Legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each centuria of the 10 cohorts. They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field. They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials. The cohorts were ranked from the First to the Tenth and the Centuria within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 Centuria in the First Cohort (For a total of 59 Centuria and the Primus Pilus). The Centuria that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. (Command of the First Centuria of the First Cohort was the highest and the 6th Centuria of the 10th Cohort was the lowest). The 5 Centurions of the First Cohort were called the Primi Ordines, and included the Primus Pilus.

Additional ranks are highlighted here:
Pilus Prior: The commander of the first cohort of each Centuria (except the first), with the following titles for the Centurions in sequence throughout each Centuria.
  • Pilus Posterior
  • Princeps Prior
  • Princeps Posterior
  • Hastatus Prior
  • Hastatus Posterior


The following chart identifies the centurion command structure of each century, cohort and legion, including their typical battle arrangement with strongest from right to left. The bracketed name in each column signifies the actual title of that officer. For example: the Quintus Princeps Posterior was the commander of the 4th century of the 5th cohort.

(Chart coming soon)

Low-Level Officers in the Aquitanian Legion
Princepales: The Princepales would be the equivalent of modern day non-commissioned officers and had the following rank structures from highest to lowest.
..Aquilifer: A single position within the Legion. The Aquilifer was the Legions Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position. The next step up would be a post as a Centurion.
..Signifer: Each Centuria had a Signifer (59). He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers. It was this banner that the men from each individual Centuria would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training.
..Optio:One for each Centurion (59), they were appointed by the Centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command.
..Tesserarius: (Guard Commander) Again there were 59 of these, or one for each Centuria. They acted in similar roles to the Optios.
..Cornicen: (Horn blower) They worked hand in hand with the Signifer drawing the attention of the men to the Centurial Signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.
..Imaginifer: Carried the Standard bearing the image of the Arch-Bishop as a constant reminder of the troops loyalty to him.

The Rank and File of the Aquitanian Legion:

Immunes: These were trained specialists, such as surgeons, engineers, surveyors, and architects, as well as craftsmen. They were exempt from camp and hard labor duties due to the nature of their work, and would generally earn slightly more pay than the Milites.

Discens: Milites in training for an immunes position.

Milites Gregarius: The basic private level foot soldier.

Tirones: The basic new recruit. A Tirones could take up to 6 months before becoming a full Milites.


May 10, 2005 21:38 (PostID: 50792)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Legionary Decorations

The Aquitanian Legion, like most organized armies throughout history had a very distinguished awards system. Decorations were usually worn by the soldiers on parades and were generally awarded at the end of a campaign or could be added to the eagle standards for entire units.

The following are some of the known awards in order from least to most important:

Torques A minor rank & file decorations for valor worn around the neck.
Armillae Another rank & file minor decoration for valor worn as an armband.
Phalerae A third type of rank & file decoration was an embossed disc, worn on the uniform.

Corona Aurea (Gold Crown) Awarded to both Centurions and apparently some principales, for killing an enemy in single combat and holding the ground to the end of the battle .

Corona Vallaris (Fortification) Was made of gold and decorated with the uprights (valli) of an entrenchment. It was awarded to the first soldier or Centurion to force his way into an enemy's palisade.

Corona Muralis (Wall) Was made of gold and decorated with turrets. It was awarded to the first soldier or Centurion who got over the walls and into a besieged city.

Corona Civica Was made of oak leaves and acorns. It was awarded to a soldier who saved another's life in battle: "To have preserved the life of a Aquitanian citizen in battle, slain his opponent, and maintained the ground on which the action took place." An extraordinary award, it brought many social privileges thereafter for the soldier's lifetime.

Corona Graminea (Grass) or Obsidionalis (Siege) The rarest of honors, was given to a Legate who broke the siege of a beleaguered Aquitanian army. The wreath was made out of grasses gathered from the site where the siege had been lifted. It was presented to the general by the army he had rescued.

Other awards given strictly to officers and seemed more likely to be ceremonial as a recognition of a term of service rather than for some act of valor:

Hasta Pura Was a spear, possibly with a silver shaft, but without the iron tip for use in combat. Was awarded to the Primus Pilus possibly upon completion of service.

Vexillum This award was a little miniature standard mounted on a silver base.
May 10, 2005 21:41 (PostID: 50793)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Legionary Discipline

Much like awards or commendations every army also has had similar problems with things like insubordination, desertion and even mutiny. During the Republican era, the discipline of the Legions was more strict and harsh than in the Imperial era.

This may be the result of several factors, including the volunteer nature of the Imperial Legion. More likely to be of influence was the Emperors need to keep the army loyal and happy to preserve his position, or just the simple fact that as generations passed people were more lenient than they were in earlier eras.

Some simple disciplines and descriptions as warranted:

Corporal punishment (castigatio), monetary fine, (pecunaria multa), added duty (munerum indictio), relegation to an inferior service (militiae mutatio), reduction in rank (gradus deiectio) or dishonourable discharge from service (missio ignominiosa). They are all equal enough to any punishment in a modern army and self-explanatory in the cause and effects both on the individual and overall moral and discipline of the ranks.

Execution The death penalty was a rarely used deterrent used against desertion, mutiny or insubordination. In cases where execution might be considered, factors such as the soldier's length of service, his rank, previous conduct, soldiers age, etc. were taken into account. Special consideration was also given to young soldiers.

Decimation An extremely rare style of the execution penalty was called decimation and would only be used in extreme cases of cowardice or mutiny. Every tenth man of a centuria, cohort or even the entire Legion, randomly chosen by a draw of lots, was killed by being clubbed or stoned to death by the other members of his unit. The effect could be overwhelmingly positive or an absolute disaster.

Disbandment An entire legion could be disbanded without the customary land settlements and pension disbursements. This like the others was rarely done and was more likely as a deterrent to Legions who may be loyal to a political opponent or group. But the threat of being disbanded was sometimes used against troops with other more common issues but was rarely actually practiced.

For example, Legio I Macriana Liberatrix ("Macer's Liberators"), was formed by Lucious Clodius Macer, rebellious Governor of Africa, in 68 AD, to be used against Nero. In the midst of this year, that came to be known as the Year of the 4 Emperors, Galba was one of the men who took claim to the throne. Galba, distrusting of Macer's intentions ordered the death of Legio I's commanding officers and the disbandment of the questionably formed Legion. It was removed from service to the empire without ever seeing action.
May 10, 2005 21:45 (PostID: 50794)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Legionary Weapons and Equipment
Basic Legionary Gear


On the march the Legionary could carry between three and fourteen days worth of rations, a saw, a wicker basket, a piece of rope or leather, a shovel, a waterskin, a sickle and a pickaxe.

Each of these items, aside from the pickaxe which was worn on the belt, was carried on a forked pole introduced by Gaius Marius call the pila muralia, which earned his men the nickname Marius Mules.

There is some discrepancy over what was actually carried and the possible total weight. Some items at times may have been transported in wagon trains or on mules such as the legionaries tents and millstones for grinding the corn rations.

Its been estimated that a Legionary could carry anywhere from 66 lbs. (30 kgs) to over 100 lbs. (45 kgs) of gear and weapons.

The gear and weapons with basic descriptions follows:

Buccellatum and Frumentum
Hard tack and corn rations.

Papilio Leather tent.

Tunica The standard tunic worn over linen undergarments and underneath his armor.

Bracae While Aquitanians considered the wearing of pants or trousers to be against any standard code of dress, legionaries in cold climates were allowed to wear wool or leather skin tight trousers that reached just below the knee.

Caligae Heavy military sandals that used iron hob-nails as treads, similar to modern day athletic cleats. The leather thongs continued half way up the shin and tied there, and in cold weather could be stuffed with wool or fur. Eventually these would be replaced by a heavier style of actual boot. Caligae was also the term from which the Emperor Gaius (Caligula) got his nickname. He was the son of the enormously popular Legate Germanicus and accompanied his Legions on several northern campaigns. As a boy the Legionaries saw him as a good luck mascot and called him Caligula for Little Boots.

Balteus or Cingulum Militare The standard belt. Was rather narrow and were decorated with bronze strips, that were sometimes tin-plated, all the way around.

Focale Scarves worn to keep the metal of their armor from scraping their necks.

Galea Helmet. Though there were many types this was the most common helmet, the Imperial Gallic along with the Imperial Italic. They were generally made of bronze with iron trim, with a projecting piece shielded the neck and a smaller ridge fastened at the front for protection of the face. At the sides were large cheek pieces hinged at the top.

Sporran The apron consisted of a number of leather thongs to which were riveted metal plates, and weighted with bronze. It could have been either decorative, protection for the genitals or a combination of both.

Scutum The large Aquitanian shield, which was curved to fit the body. They were made from thin sheets of wood, glued together so that the grain of each piece was at right angles to the piece next to it. The whole was bound around the edges with wrought iron or bronze and the center was hollowed out on the inside for the handgrip and protected by metal bands. On the outside the surface was covered in leather, on which was fastened gilded or silvered decoration, probably in bronze. Each cohort had different color schemes aid recognition during a battle. The shields also carried the name of the soldier and that of his centurion. On the march, the shield was hung by a strap over the left shoulder.

Body Armor

Lorica Hamata
Chain mail that was used throughout Aquitanian history and well after its fall. It provided excellent protection and flexibility, but was very heavy, expensive and time consuming to make. [AC:+5, Max Dex: +2, Check Pen: -5, Spell Fail: 30%, Speed: 20ft/15ft, Weight: 40 lbs, Cost: 150gp]

Lorica Segmentata Plate Armor. This armor was made up of many pieces of laminated iron all bound together to form a very flexible, strong and the most effective of Aquitanian body protection. It replaced chain mail as the standard Legionary issue and began to be replaced by Scale armor in the very late 2nd century CE. [AC Bonus: +7, Max Dex: +0, AC Pen: -7, Spell Fail: 40%, Speed: 20 ft/15 ft, Weight: 50 lbs, Cost: 600 gp]

Loricae Squamatae Scale Armor, actually translated to Armor of Feathers. Scale armor consisted of row upon row of overlapping bronze or iron scales, which resembled a coat of feathers. Scale began to replace Plate late in the 2nd Century CE, as it was easier and less expensive to make than the other forms, but was less flexible and it offered far less protection. It was especially vulnerable from an upward stab. [AC Bonus: +4, Max Dex: +3, AC Pen: -4, Spell Fail: 25%, Speed: 20 ft/15 ft, Weight: 30 lbs, Cost: 50 gp]

Weapons:

Gladius
The Aquitanian short sword. It was a double-edged weapon about 18 long and two inches wide, often with a corrugated bone grip formed to the Legionaries hand. A large round ball at the end helped with the balance. The primary use was for thrusting at short range. It was carried high on the right hand side so as to be clear of the legs and the shield arm.

Pilum The Aquitanian javelin. It was seven feet long and very light, as it was thrown before just prior to engaging the enemy in melee, to disarm as much as wound them. The top three feet were of iron with a hardened point. It is probable that more sturdy types of spear of the same name were available for defense against cavalry in formation such as the turtle.

Pugio The Aquitanian dagger was anywhere from 7 to 11 inches long in similar width to the gladius. It could be highly decorative or very plain, but was a very useful secondary weapon in case of being disarmed. It was attached to the belt on the left hand side.

Centurion Gear:
A centurions equipment was notably different from that of a legionary. He wore a transverse, side to side, crest along his helmet that would serve as an easily recognized point of reference for the men. The crest was made either of feathers or horsehair and colors could signify various ranks. Rather than the Lorica Segmentata of the Legionary, they would wear either chain or scale. It was generally about waist length with a lower edge similar to the muscled cuirass. The armor and helmet could be silver-plated as well. He did not wear the apron like the Legionary but had a double-pleated kilt like piece. They also wore a cloak, of fine material, which hung from the left shoulder and a very ornate belt.

Additionally the wearing of bronze greaves on the shins set them apart from the rank & file. They generally wore their swords on the left and daggers on the right, opposite of the common soldiers. They carried a Vitis, vine staff, in his right hand as a symbol of his rank. It was made of grapevine and about 3 feet long.

Officer Gear:

Officers could, of course, dress very differently from anyone else and there seems to be set pattern to the styles. They did have very fine dyed cloaks of various colors to signify rank. They generally wore a muscled cuirass and used a parazonium instead of a gladius; both described below.

Lorica Musculata The muscled cuirass was a bronze chest piece made in two pieces, one for the front and one for the back, and buckled together at the sides. These were well decorated with animal, mythological and chest muscle designs.

Pteruges Straps that hung off the shoulders and waist and covering the upper arms and legs, were made of leather. They were implemented to protect the arms and legs, while conserving the use of metal.

Parazonium The more ornate sword carried by officers, the hilt of which could be in the form of an eagle head, or lobed. It can be slung on a narrow shoulder baldric but is more often simply cradled in the left arm, and the fingers of the left hand can be forked over the lobed pommel.

Jun 7, 2005 18:12 (PostID: 50795)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Current Deployments of the Four Aquitanian Legions:

1st Legion
Garrisoned: Aquileia (1st & 2nd cohorts - 1,280 men excluding officers), Patavium (3rd cohort), Verona (4th cohort), Brixia (5th cohort), Sopieanae (6th cohort), Segestica (7th cohort), Lone Tree Pass (8th cohort), Augusta Praetoria (9th cohort), Sirmium (10th cohort)
Emblem: Bull
Legatus Legionis (Legate): Bercunus Curtius
Major recruitment areas: Aquileia, Verona, Patavium, etc.
Last Enlistment Year: 1259

2nd Legion
Garrisoned: Capua (1st cohort - 800 men excluding officers), Tarentum (2nd cohort), Populonium (3rd cohort), Perusia (4th cohort), Neapolis (5th cohort), Ostia (6th cohort), Aleria (7th cohort), Luna (8th cohort), Corfinium (9th cohort), Asculum (10th cohort).
Emblem: Boar
Legatus Legionis (Legate): Cainus Sentius Buccio
Major recruitment areas: Capua, Tarricina, Beneventum, Neapolis, etc.
Last Enlistment Year: 1264

3rd Legion
Garrisoned: Carthago (1st & 2nd cohorts), Agrigentum (3rd cohort), Panormus (4th cohort), Syracuse (5th cohort), Hippo Regius (6th cohort), Messana (7th cohort), Locri Epizaphyrii (8th cohort), Croton (9th cohort), Sybaris (10th cohort)
Emblem: Elephant
Legatus Legionis (Legate): Ureter Maelius
Major recruitment areas: Carthago, Hippo Regius, Panormus, Agrigentum, etc.
Last Enlistment Year: 1259

4th Legion
Garrisoned: Apollonia (1st & 8th cohorts), Brundisium (2nd & 10th cohorts), Corcyra (3rd & 9th cohorts), Tarentum (4th cohort), Dyrrachium (5th cohort), Epidaurum (6th cohort), Salona (7th cohort).
Emblem: Galley
Legatus Legionis (Legate): Flercuno Laetonius Dolabella
Major recruitment areas: Apollonia, Dyrrachium, Corcyra, Brundisium, etc.
Last Enlistment Year: 1264
Philosopher
avatar
Jul 14, 2005 07:11 (PostID: 50796)   Like this postNumber of Likes0



The Roman legion (from the Latin legio, meaning levy) was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. It consisted of about 5,000 to 6,000 (later 8,000) infantry soldiers and several hundred auxiliary cavalrymen and ranged troops, typically skirmishers. Legions were named and numbered; about 50 have been identified. Usually there were 28 Legions plus their Auxiliaries, with more raised as needed or as able. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area - City Proper 1290 km² Population - City (2004) - Metropolitan - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Infantry, thought to be of the Royal Irish Rifles, in the First World War Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot, although modern infantry may be transported in any number of fashions. ...

Contents
1 History
2 Organization
2.1 Legionary Officers
3 Symbols
4 References and further reading
5 External links
6 See also




History
Originally, in the time of the Kings, the legio was the whole Roman army, comprised of levied citizens. At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic, the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls. In the first years of the Republic, when the warfare was mostly concentrated in raids, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at one time. Legions become organized in a more formal way in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions. The military tribunes appeared after 331 BC. The internal organization of the legion became more sophisticated, from the classic phalanx to the manipular system, and allowed important tactical innovations. Later in the Roman Empire, the legion was commonly reinforced by allied troops, the allae. There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) was the representative government of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, sometimes placed at 44 BC (the year of Caesars appointment as perpetual... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... Military tribunes were officers of the Roman Legions. ... A Macedonian phalanx, as portrayed in the Rome: Total War computer game. ... word from the Latin original manipulus, which ALSO signifies a homonymous type of military insignia carried by such unit (as well as a liturgical garment- See Maniple (vestment)) for a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuria within a single cohort. ...

Throughout the history of Rome's Late Republic and Imperial era, the legions played an important political role. Their actions could secure the empire for an Imperial hopeful or take it away. An example is the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors, decided in the moment that the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian. By the 1st Century BC the threat of the Legions under a demagogue was recognized. Governors could not leave their provinces with their Legions. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon he left his provinces and came to Italy under arms. This last precipitated a constitutional crisis.. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24 AD 15December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had been consul and governor of Syria... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon The Rubicon (Rubico, in Italian Rubicone) is an ancient Latin name for a small river in northern Italy. ... A constitutional crisis is a situation in which separate factions within a government disagree about the extent to which each of these factions hold sovereignty; as such, it is distinct from a rebellion, in which factions outside of a government challenge that governments sovereignty. ...


Organization
In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular army (two per consul), other units were levied by campaign. However, at the end of the 2nd century BC Marius reformed the legions to be a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and its jobless denizens to make something of themselves. However this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than Rome itself, and after several civil wars the Republic was abolished. In The Empire, the legion was standardized, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve. The legion was commanded by a legate or legatus. Aged around thirty, he would usually be a senator on a three year appointment. Immediately subordinate to the legate would be six elected military tribunes five would be staff officers and the remaining one would be a noble heading for the Senate. There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers and the praefectus castrorum (commander of the camp) as well as other specialists such as priests and musicians.

In the middle of the Republic, legions were composed of the following units:

Cavalry or equites. The cavalry was originally the most prestigious unit, where wealthy young Roman upstarts displayed their skill and prowess, laying the foundation for an eventual political career. Cavalry equipment was purchased by each of the cavalrymen and consisted of a round shield, helmet, body armour, sword and one or more javelins. The cavalry was outnumbered in the legion. In a total of circa 3000 men, the legion had only around 300 horsemen, divided into 10 units of 30 men. These men were commanded by decurions. Additional to this heavy cavalry, there would be the light cavalry levied from poor citizens and wealthy young citizens not old enough to be in the hastati or the equites. An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... Javelin can refer to several things: For the spear-like object, see Javelin throw. ... A Decurion is an officer in command of thirty men in the army of the Roman Empire. ...

Light infantry or velites. The velites were basically javelin throwers who did not have a precise formal organization or function in battle, being used where there was need for them. Normally they would deploy in front of the legion and try to break up the enemy formation, though this rarely accomplished much. After throwing their javelins they would retreat through the gaps between the maniples. Velites were a class of light infantry in the army of the Roman Republic, The Velites (pronounced well-ih-tays) were skirmishers, armed with a short sword (Gladius) and several javelins. ...

Heavy Infantry. This was the principal unit of the legion. The heavy infantry was composed of citizen legionaries that could afford the equipment composed of bronze helmet, shield, armour and short spear (pilum). The preferred weapon was the gladius, a short sword. The heavy infantry was subdivided, according to the legionaries' experience in the Republican Legion prior to the Marian reforms, which abolished the separate classes of troops turning the legion into a professional force, into three separate lines: From left to right: Mainz, Fulham, Pompeii, and Pompeii Gladii. ...

The hastati (sing. hastatus) were the younger ones and formed the front line
The principes (sing. princeps), men in their prime (late twenties early thirties), composed the second line of the legion
The triarii (sing. triarius) were the veteran soldiers that occupied the rear; only in extreme situations would they be used in battle. They were equipped with spears rather than the pilum and gladius.
Each of these three lines was subdivided into maniples, the lowest subunit of the army, each consisting of two centuries commanded by the senior of the two centurions. Centuries were nominally 80 soldiers each (not 100, as is popularly believed), but in practice might be as few as 60, especially in the less numerous triarii maniples. Each century had its standard and was made up of ten units called contubernia. In a contubernium, there would be eight soldiers who shared a tent, millstone, a mule and cooking pot (depending on duration of tour). The Hastati (sing. ... The plural of the Latin word princeps Specifically, usually in the plural, in the military, the so-called Principes formed the second line of battle in the Roman Republican Army. ... The Triarii was the third standard line of infantry of the Roman Empires army. ... word from the Latin original manipulus, which ALSO signifies a homonymous type of military insignia carried by such unit (as well as a liturgical garment- See Maniple (vestment)) for a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuria within a single cohort. ... Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Centurion Cornelius A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: hekatontarchos) was a professional officer of the Roman army. ... cast-iron iron enamel stainless steel The cooking pan is a type of food preparation utensil commonly found in the kitchen which includes many more specific cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans (or fry pans). ...

During deployment, the maniples were commonly arranged in a chequered formation called quincunx. However, it is unlikely that they entered battle in this way. Principes maniples would cover the open space left by the hastati, and be covered in return by triarii maniples. The two centuries of each maniple were formed up one behind the other. After the velites had retreated through the 'Hastati', the 'posterior' century would march to the left and then forward so that they presented a solid line. Then the Hastati would charge. If they were losing the fight, the 'posterior' century returned to its position creating gaps again. Then the maniples would fall back through the gaps in the 'Principes', who followed the same procedure to form a battle line and charge. If the Principes could not break the enemy, they would retreat behind the 'Triarii' and the whole army would leave the battlefield in good order. This is only standard procedure and was often modified; at Zama, Scipio deployed his entire legion in a single line to envelop Hannibal's army just as Hannibal had done at Cannae. A quincunx is the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five-spot on dice, playing cards, or dominoes. ...

to legion article File links The following pages link to this file: Roman legion Categories: Images with unknown source ...


In the late republic, the cohort of which there were six to ten, became the basic tactical unit. The cohort is composed of six to eight centuries and is led by a centurion assisted by an optio, a soldier who could read and write. The senior centurion of the legion was called the primus pilus, a career soldier and advisor to the legate. Under the Marian (named after Gaius Marius) reforms, Legions were organized into Cohorts for the first time. A cohort (from the Latin Cohors, plural cohortes, a military-type unit, as the infantry batallions constituting a Roman legion) is a fairly large group of rather homogenous individuals : original Roman Cohortes military cohort Originally it was a sub-unit of a Roman legion, consisting of 600 men (infantry), itself... OPTIO (from the Latin verb optare to choose, because he was *) (Greek form OPTIOON) was a Roman military rank title for a regular NCO; sometimes also awarded to a private with special responsibilities. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... Gaius Marius (Latin: CMARIVSCFCN) (157 - January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician who was mostly known for his reform of Roman armies. ...

A legion therefore had around 4,800 legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves. Legions could contain as many as 6,000 fighting men, although at times in Roman history the number was reduced to 1,000 to curb the power of mutinous commanders. Julius Caesar's legions had only around 3,500 men. Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ...

Auxiliaries, each Legion had a same size or near same size auxiliary which contained specialist units, engineers and pioneers, artillerymen and siege craftsmen, service and support units plus units made up of non-citizens (who were granted Roman citizenship upon discharge) and undesireables. These were usually formed into complete units such as light cavalry, light infantry, and laborers. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...


Legionary Officers
Senior Officers

Legatus Legionis: The overall Legionary commander. This post was generally appointed by the emperor to a man who was a former Tribune and held command for 3 or 4 years, although could serve for a much longer period. In a province with only one legion, the Legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion has a Legatus and the provincial governor has overall command of them all.

Tribunus Laticlavius: Named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank, this tribune was appointed by the Emperor or the Senate. Though generally quite young and less experienced than the Tribuni Angusticlavii, he served as second in command of the legion, behind the Legate.

Praefectus Castrorum: The camp Prefect. Generally he was a long serving veteran who had been promoted through the ranks of the centurions and was 3rd in overall command.

Tribuni Angusticlavii: Each legion had 5 military tribunes of equestrian (knight) class citizens. They were in many cases career officers and served many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function during engagements.

Primus Pilus: The "First File" or "First Spear" was the commanding centurion of the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion. When the Primus Pilus retired he was guaranteed entry into the Equestrian Class. He was paid 60 times the base wage.
Mid-Level Officers


Centurions: Each Legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each century of the 10 cohorts. They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field. They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials. The cohorts were ranked from the First to the Tenth and the Century within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 Century in the First Cohort (For a total of 59 Centurions and the Primus Pilus). The Century that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. (Command of the First Century of the First Cohort was the highest and the 6th Century of the 10th Cohort was the lowest). The 5 Centurions of the First Cohort were called the Primi Ordines (paid 30 times the base wage), and included the Primus Pilus. The Pilus Prior was the commander of the first Century of each Cohort.
Low-Level Officers

Aquilifer: A single position within the Legion. The Aquilifer was the Legion's Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position. Losing the aquila (eagle) was considered a great dishonor. The next step up would be a post as a Centurion. Paid twice the basic wage.

Signifer: Each Century had a Signifer (59). He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers. It was this banner that the men from each individual Century would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training. Paid twice the basic wage.

Optio: One for each Centurion (59), they were appointed by the Centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command. Paid twice the basic wage.

Tesserarius: (Guard Commander) Again there were 59 of these, or one for each Century. They acted seconds to the Optios. Paid one and a half times the basic wage.

Cornicen: (Horn blower) They worked hand in hand with the Signifer drawing the attention of the men to the Centurial Signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.

Imaginifer: Carried the Standard bearing the image of the Emperor as a constant reminder of the troop's loyalty to him.

Decurion: (Sergeant) lead a Contubernium, or "Tent Group", of 8 to 10 men. Each Century had 8 to 10 of these.






This is a list of Roman legions. These are mainly legions of the Roman Empire; earlier legions were not permanent named organizations. The Roman legion (from the Latin legio, meaning levy) was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. ... Roman Empire - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...

Comments added include life span of the legion, cause of disappearance (if relevant), the original commander (the man who levied the legion), and emblem.

Contents
1 Republican and Imperatorial legions
2 Early Empire legions
3 Late Empire legions
4 Reference
5 External link




Republican and Imperatorial legions
The Republican legions were formed by Roman citizens and raised whenever it was necessary. Usually they were levied by the Roman Senate, and were later disbanded.

In the last years of the Republic, several Roman generals started to levy legions with their own money; these legions were loyal to their commanders, rather than to the Senate, so their presence increased the power of these generals. Maintaining these legions was, however, expensive, so they were usually levied for particular campaigns (such as those of Pompey against the pirates, those of Julius Caesar against Gauls, those of Mark Antony and Crassus against the Parthian Empire, and so on), and disbanded as soon these campaigns ended. the nickname of the city of Portsmouth in Hampshire, England, the nickname of its principal football club, Portsmouth F.C., and the name of a city in France: Pompey, Lorraine. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...

The legions included in the following list had a long enough history to be somehow remarkable. Most of them were levied by Julius Caesar and later included into Octavian army, some of them levied by Mark Antony.

Legio I Germanica (German) - 48 BC to 70 AD (Batavian rebellion), Julius Caesar
Legio II Sabina (Sabine) 43 BC to circa 9 AD, early name of the Legio II Augusta
Legio III Cyrenaica (from Cyrenaica) probably around 36 BC to (at least) 5th century, Mark Antony
Legio III Gallica (from Gallia) around 49 BC to at least early 4th century, Julius Caesar (emblem: bull)
Legio IV Macedonica (Macedonian) - 48 BC to 70 AD (disbanded by Vespasian), Julius Caesar (emblem: bull, capricorn)
Legio IV Scythica (from Scythia) - around 42 BC to at least early 5th century, Mark Antony (emblem: capricorn)
Legio V Alaudae (Larks) - 52 BC to 70 AD (destroyed in the Batavian rebellion), Julius Caesar (emblem: elephant)
Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) - 52 BC to after 250 AD, Julius Caesar (emblem: bull, wolf and Romulus and Remus)
Legio VII - 5144 BC, disbanded and re-enlisted by Augustus as Legio VII Paterna
Legio VIII - 5948 BC, Julius Caesar, disbanded and re-enlisted by Augustus as Legio VIII Augusta
Legio IX Triumphalis (Triumphant) - 5948 BC, Julius Caesar, disbanded and re-enlisted by Augustus as Legio IX Hispana
Legio X Equestris (Knights), 58 to 48 BC, Julius Caesar, disbanded, reconstituted by Lepidus, incorporated into the Legio X Gemina by Augustus.
Legio X Veneria (devoted to the goddess Venus), probably another name of X Equestris.
Legio XI - 58-45 BC, Julius Caesar (emblem: Neptune), disbanded, reconstituted by Augustus as Legio XI
Legio XII Victrix (Victoriuos) - 57 BC to 45, Julius Caesar
Legio XII Antiqua (Ancient) - reconstituted by Lepidus in 43 BC, named by Mark Anthony, included in Augustus army as Legio XII Fulminata
Legio XIII - 57 to 45 BC, Julius Caesar, later (41 BC) reconstituted as Legio XIII Gemina by Augustus
Legio XVIII Lybica (from Lybia) - disbanded 31 BC, Mark Antony
Legio XXX Classica (Naval) - 4841 BC, Julius Caesar
Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... This article is about the year 9. ... Legio II Augusta was a Roman legion. ... Legio III Cyrenaica, meaning from Cyrenaica (a Roman province), was a Roman legion probably levied by Marcus Antonius around 36 BC, then governor of Cyrenaica. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Legio III Gallica was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans led by Pompey. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Legio IV Macedonica, meaning from Macedonia, was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar in 48 BC with Italian legionaries. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... For other uses, see number 70. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Capricornus (♑), a name meaning Horned Goat in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Legio IV Scythica was a Roman legion levied by Marcus Antonius around 42 BC, for his campaign against the Parthian empire, hence the cognomen Parthica. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Capricornus (♑), a name meaning Horned Goat in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Legio V Alaudae, the larks, sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Stegodon (extinct) Deinotherium (extinct) Mammuthus (extinct) Elephantidae (the elephants) is the only extant family in the order Proboscidea. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Grey Wolf (Canis lupus), also known colloquially as just the wolf, is a mammal of the Canidae family and the ancestor of the domestic dog. ... Romulus has several meanings: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome. ... Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome in Roman mythology, were the supposed sons of the god Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Legio VIII Augusta was a Roman legion created by Julius Caesar and continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Legio IX Hispana was a Roman legion probably levied by Julius Caesar before 58 BC, for his Gallic wars. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Neptune can refer to different things: Neptune, the planet Neptune, the god in Roman mythology Neptune, New Jersey Neptune Township, New Jersey Neptune City, New Jersey Neptune, California, a fictional coastal town near San Diego, California and the setting for Veronica Mars Neptune, the Mystic is a movement in Gustav... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... For alternate uses, see Number 45. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (187 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (49 BC) This is a disambiguation page a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Legio XII Fulminata, also known as Paterna or Antiqua, was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. They were stationed in Pharsalus in 48 BC and probably fought in the Battle of Pharsalus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Legio XIII Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 57 BC, before his attack against the tribe of the Belgians. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ...

Early Empire legions
Legio I

Legio I Germanica (German) - 48 BC to 70 AD (Batavian rebellion), Julius Caesar
Legio I Adiutrix (Helper) - 68 AD to (at least) 444 AD, Nero
Legio I Italica (Italian) - September 22, 66 AD to (at least) 5th century, established at Misenum, Nero
Legio I Macriana liberatrix (liberator of Macer) - 68 to 69 AD, Lucius Clodius Macer, governor of Africa
Legio I Minervia (protected by goddess Minerva) - 82 AD to (at least) 4th century, Domitian
Legio I Parthica (Parthian) - 197 to early 6th century, Septimius Severus
Legio II Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ... For other uses, see number 68. ... Events Pope Leo I extinguishes the Gallican vicariate Armagh founded by St. ... Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December 379 June 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called (5054 AD) Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Legio I Italica (the Italian legion) was a Roman legion levied by emperor Nero on September 22, 66 AD (the date is attested by an inscription), for a campaign in Armenia that never took place. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years). ... For other uses, see number 66. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December 379 June 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called (5054 AD) Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Legio I Macriana liberatrix (the liberators of Macer) was a Roman legion levied in Africa by the governor Lucius Clodius Macer in 68 AD. The purpose of the legion was to join forces with Legio III Augusta in a rebellion against emperor Nero. ... For other uses, see number 68. ... ... Lucius Clodius Macer was a legatus of the Roman Empire in Africa in the time of Nero. ... Legio I Minervia was a Roman legion levied by emperor Domitian in 82 AD, for the campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Events Roman emperor Domitian is also a Roman Consul. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Legio I Parthica, as well as II and III Parthica, were Roman legions levied in 197 by the emperor Lucius Septimius Severus, for the campaigns against Parthia. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and captures an enormous number of its inhabitants as slaves. ... (5th century 6th century 7th century other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ...

Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis (helper faithful and loyal) - 70 AD to (at least) 3rd century, Vespasian
Legio II Augusta (levied by Augustus) - before 9 AD to at least 3rd century (emblem: capricorn, pegasus).
Legio II Gallica (from Gallia) - established Arausio, modern Orange, France, possibly another cognomen for the Legio II Augusta
Legio II Italica (Italian) - 165 to beginning of the 5th century, Marcus Aurelius
Legio II Parthica (Parthian) 197 AD until, at least half of 4th century, Lucius Septimius Severus
Legio II Traiana Fortis (Trajan strong legion) - 105 AD to (at least) 5th century, Trajan
Legio II Germanica (German) - new cognomen from 3rd century, Caracalla
Legio III Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis (supporter, faithful and loyal), was a Roman legion levied by emperor Vespasian on 70 AD, from Roman navy marines in Ravenna. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Legio II Augusta was a Roman legion. ... For other uses, see number 9. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Capricornus (♑), a name meaning Horned Goat in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... In Greek mythology, Pegasus, or Pegasos was a winged horse that was the foal of Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and the Gorgon Medusa. ... Roman theatre at Orange, France Orange (Arenjo in Provenal) is a city in the dpartement of Vaucluse, in the south of France. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Legio II Italica, meaning from Italy, was a Roman legion levied by emperor Marcus Aurelius in 165 AD together with Legio I Italica at a time when the Roman Empire was fighting both in Germania and in Parthia. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Legio II Parthica was a Roman legion levied by emperor Lucius Septimius Severus in 197 AD, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence the cognomen Parthica. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and captures an enormous number of its inhabitants as slaves. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Legio II Traiana Fortis, Trajans strong legion, was a Roman legion levied by emperor Trajan in 105 AD, along with Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix, for the campaigns in Dacia. ... -1... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (full title in Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·NERVAE·FILIVS·TRAIANVS. GERMANICVS·AVGVSTVS ¹) (September 18, 53 - August 9, 117), Roman Emperor from 98 - 117, commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called five good emperors of the Roman Empire, succeeding Nerva. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 186April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD 211217. ...

Legio III Augusta (levied by Augustus) 43 BC to (at least) late 4th century, Augustus (emblem: pegasus)
Legio III Cyrenaica (from Cyrenaica) probably around 36 BC to (at least) 5th century, Mark Antony
Legio III Gallica (from Gallia) around 49 BC to at least early 4th century, Julius Caesar (emblem: bull)
Legio III Italica (Italian) - 165 AD to at least early 4th century, Marcus Aurelius
Legio III Parthica (Parthian) - around 197 AD to at least early 5th century, Lucius Septimius Severus
Legio IV Legio III Augusta was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... In Greek mythology, Pegasus, or Pegasos was a winged horse that was the foal of Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and the Gorgon Medusa. ... Legio III Cyrenaica, meaning from Cyrenaica (a Roman province), was a Roman legion probably levied by Marcus Antonius around 36 BC, then governor of Cyrenaica. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Legio III Gallica was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans led by Pompey. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Legio III Italica was a Roman legion levied by Marcus Aurelius around 165, for his campaign against the Marcomanni tribe. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Legio III Parthica was a Roman legion levied by emperor Lucius Septimius Severus in 197 AD, for his campaign against the Parthian empire, hence the cognomen Parthica. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and captures an enormous number of its inhabitants as slaves. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ...

Legio IV Macedonica (Macedonian) - 48 BC to 70 AD (disbanded by Vespasian), Julius Caesar (emblem: bull, capricorn)
reconstituted under the name of Legio IV Flavia Felix (lucky Flavian legion) - about 70 AD to before 400 AD, Vespasian
Legio IV Scythica (from Scythia) - around 42 BC to at least early 5th century, Mark Antony (emblem: capricorn)
Legio V Legio IV Macedonica, meaning from Macedonia, was a Roman legion levied by Julius Caesar in 48 BC with Italian legionaries. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC... For other uses, see number 70. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Capricornus (♑), a name meaning Horned Goat in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 350s - 360s - 370s - 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s Years: 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 Events: Constantine III seizes control of the Roman garrison in Britain, declares himself emperor, and crosses into Gaul. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Legio IV Scythica was a Roman legion levied by Marcus Antonius around 42 BC, for his campaign against the Parthian empire, hence the cognomen Parthica. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: MANTONIVSMFMN) (c. ... Capricornus (♑), a name meaning Horned Goat in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ...

Legio V Alaudae (Larks) - 52 BC to 70 AD (destroyed in the Batavian rebellion), Julius Caesar (emblem: elephant)
Legio V Macedonica (Macedonian) - 43 BC to after 400 AD, consul Caius Vibius Pansa and Augustus (emblem: bull)
Legio V Urbana, probably early name of the Legio V Macedonica
Legio V Gallica, probably early name of the Legio V Macedonica
Legio VI Legio V Alaudae, the larks, sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Stegodon (extinct) Deinotherium (extinct) Mammuthus (extinct) Elephantidae (the elephants) is the only extant family in the order Proboscidea. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 350s - 360s - 370s - 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s Years: 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 Events: Constantine III seizes control of the Roman garrison in Britain, declares himself emperor, and crosses into Gaul. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ...

Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) - 52 BC to after 250 AD, Julius Caesar (emblem: bull, wolf and Romulus and Remus)
Legio VI Victrix (Victorious) - 41 BC to late 4th century, Augustus (emblem: bull)
Legio VI Hispaniensis, another name of the Legio VI Victrix
Legio VII Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Grey Wolf (Canis lupus), also known colloquially as just the wolf, is a mammal of the Canidae family and the ancestor of the domestic dog. ... Romulus has several meanings: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome. ... Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome in Roman mythology, were the supposed sons of the god Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia. ... Legio VI Victrix (victorious legion) was founded by Octavian in 41 BC. It was a copy of Legio VI Ferrata and perhaps held veterans of that legion, and some soldiers kept to the traditions of the Caesarian legion. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ...

Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) - 58 BC to end of 4th century AD, Julius Caesar (emblem: bull)
Legio VII Paterna (Paternal), name of Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis up to 42 AD
Legio VII Gemina (Twin) - October 68 AD to end of 4th century AD, Galba
Legio VIII Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... The Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything Events Romans take control of Ceuta. ... For other uses, see number 68. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Head of Galba at Louvre. ...

Legio VIII Augusta (raised by Augustus), 59 BC to after 371 AD - Caesar Augustus
Legio VIII Gallica (from Gallia), early name of VIII Augusta
Legio VIII Mutinensis (from Mutina), early name of VIII Augusta
Legio IX Legio VIII Augusta was a Roman legion created by Julius Caesar and continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... Events Martin of Tours becomes Bishop of Tours _ year approximate Baekje forces storm the Goguryeo capital in Pyongyang Births Valentinian II - titular Roman emperor - year approximate Deaths August 1 - St Eusebius of Vercelli St Hilarion - year approximate Lucifer of Cagliari - bishop King Gogugwon of Goguryeo Categories: 371 ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ...

Legio IX Hispana (Spanish) - before 41 BC to before 160 AD, Caesar Augustus
Legio X Legio IX Hispana was a Roman legion probably levied by Julius Caesar before 58 BC, for his Gallic wars. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... For other uses, see number 160. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ...

Legio X Fretensis (Of the sea streits) - 41/40 BC to at least 260 AD, Augustus (emblem: boar, bull, dolphin, galley)
Legio X Gemina (Twin) - 44 BC to early 5th century, Lepidus
Legio XI Legio X Fretensis (Of the sea streits) was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 41/40 BC to fight during the civil war; X Fretensis is recorded to exist at least until 260 AD. Its symbol was the bull (Latin: Taurus – holy animal of the goddess Venus, the mythical... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 210s - 220s - 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s - 310s Years: 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 Events Crisis of the Third Century Significant people Gallienus, Roman Emperor Claudius II, Roman Emperor Categories: 260s ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... A bull is a male of various animal species, including: cattle elephant whale In English, bull is usually spoken to refer specifically to male cattle, with terms such as bull elephant disambiguating the term for other species. ... Genera See article below. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (187 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (49 BC) This is a disambiguation page a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) - 42 BC to early 5th century, Caesar Augustus (emblem: Neptune)
Legio XII Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... Neptune can refer to different things: Neptune, the planet Neptune, the god in Roman mythology Neptune, New Jersey Neptune Township, New Jersey Neptune City, New Jersey Neptune, California, a fictional coastal town near San Diego, California and the setting for Veronica Mars Neptune, the Mystic is a movement in Gustav...

Legio XII Fulminata (wielder of thunderbolt) - 43 BC to (at least) 5th century, Lepidus (emblem: thunderbolt)
Legio XIII Legio XII Fulminata, also known as Paterna or Antiqua, was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. They were stationed in Pharsalus in 48 BC and probably fought in the Battle of Pharsalus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (187 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (49 BC) This is a disambiguation page a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the mythological weapon. ...

Legio XIII Gemina (Twin) - 41 BC to (at least) 5th century, Caesar Augustus
Legio XIV Legio XIII Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 57 BC, before his attack against the tribe of the Belgians. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ...

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix (Twin and Martial Victory) - Augustus
Legio XV Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire created by Octavian. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ...

Legio XV Apollinaris (devoted to the god Apollo) - 41/40 BC to 5th century - Augustus
Legio XV Primigenia (devoted to goddess Fortuna) - 39 AD to 70 AD (destroyed in the Batavian rebellion), Caligula
Legio XVI Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... Legio XV Primigenia was originally levied by the emperor Caligula in 39 AD, for the germanic campaigns. ... Events Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Gaius Caesar Germanicus Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (August 31, 12 January 24, 41), also known as Gaius Caesar or Caligula, was the third Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from AD 37 to 41. ...

Legio XVI Gallica (from Gallia) - 41/40 BC to 70 AD (Batavian rebellion) - Augustus (emblem: lion)
Legio XVI Flavia Firma (standfast Flavian legion) reconstitution of the XVI Gallica - 70 AD to 4th century - Vespasian
Legio XVII Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... For other uses, see number 70. ... The Batavian rebellion took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between 69 and 70 AD. The rebels led by Civilis managed to destroy four legions and inflicted humiliating defeats on the Roman army. ... Bust of Augustus Caesar Imperator Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...

Legio XVII - 41 BC to 9 AD (Battle of Teutoburg Forest), Augustus
Legio XVIII Legio XVII was a Roman legion levied by Augustus Ca
Philosopher
avatar
Jul 14, 2005 07:15 (PostID: 50797)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

http://www.nationmaster.com


Legio I Germanica (German) - currently reforming under Pompius (emblem: none at this time)

Legio II Sabina (Sabine)

Legio III Cyrenaica (from Cyrenaica) Legio III Gallica (from Gallia) around 49 BC to at least early 4th century, now at Cyrenaica(emblem: bull)

Legio IV Macedonica (Macedonian) - (disbanded by Vespasian)-reconstituted(emblem: bull, capricorn)

Legio IV Scythica (from Scythia) - around 42 BC to at least early 5th century, (emblem: capricorn)

Legio V Alaudae (Larks) - (destroyed in the Batavian rebellion), (emblem: elephant)

Legio VI Ferrata (Ironclad) - (emblem: bull, wolf and Romulus and Remus), destroyed

Legio VII - 5144 BC, disbanded

Legio VIII - disbanded

Legio IX Triumphalis (Triumphant), disbanded

Legio X Equestris (Knights), disbanded, reconstituted by Lepidus,(emblem: Horses Head: St. Epona),

Legio XII Victrix (Victoriuos)- reconstituted with new troops, not trained yet

Legio XIII - 57 to 45 BC, Julius Caesar, later (41 BC) reconstituted as
Legio XIII Gemina

Legio XV -(emblem: Neptune), disbanded, reconstituted by Augustus

Legio XVIII Lybica (from Lybia) - disbanded

Legio XXX Classica (Naval)- disbanded, not filled



As you can see there are only 6 of the original XXX Legions active at this time. Legio III I have designated as Legio III Cyrenaica, which was its historic designation. However, if that does not fit what you have going, change it.

Each Legion needs to have an emblem, which to carry would be the greatest of honors.

Each Legion must also have a Patron Saint to follow, Legions can follow the same Patron Saint.


[Edited by Horseman - 14 Jul 2005 : 7:42:13 AM] [Edited by Horseman - 14 Jul 2005 :  7:43:04 AM]
Philosopher
avatar
Jul 19, 2005 07:24 (PostID: 50798)   Like this postNumber of Likes0

Potential new Skill for you Legionaires

Knowledge: War (Int; Trained Only)

(This skill is designed for use with the Farland Mass Combat system). Use this skill to conduct a war, maintain an army, and gain an advantage in battle. The following explains how this skill relates to the Farland mass combat system. This skill is quite necessary to be an effective leader of troops.



Task DC



Maintain a supply train, unopposed 12

Successfully relay timely order on the battlefield 15

Raise Discipline of Troops 20*

Successfully "dig in" an army 15

Support Troops in hostile terrain with supply line 20+

Use terrain to an advantage, unopposed 20

Use terrain to an advantage, opposed OKWC

Support troops in hostile terrain by foraging 25

Successfully use anti-infantry artillery 25

Use tactics successfully against an enemy OKWC

Ambush OKWC**

Successfully employ spies 25+***

Other specialized war-related task 20+



* To qualify as trained; +2 per each rank above trained

OKWC= Opposing Knowledge: War check

** Possibly after successful deployment of spies.

*** to determine enemy movement or plans (if spies, time, and resources are available)



Successful use of this skill is highly dependent on situation and resources. Some things, such as spying, cannot be attempted without sufficient resources, while other things, such as advantageous terrain, may come by luck. If an army is on higher ground when they are attacked then there is no need for the commander to make a check. Many times whether or not the skill may be used is up to the DM.
page  of 1 pages containing 8 items.Items per page:

Home - Control Panel - FAQs - Forums - Join a Game - Create a Game - Game Index - User Directory - Privacy Policy -
System Time: 10/31/2014 4:15:50 AM
RPG,D&D Library